The almighty they, they plague my mind

The turmoil, the pleasure, the pain

Why can’t we all have the good

And return the kindness once bestowed upon us


Let us drift to sleep knowing we will awake

Refreshed, not taunted

Let the day pass with no stress or strain

Returning to home seeing no pain


Had I the power to prevent the bad

To change the past, and heal the wounds

To marshal the peace, and bar the unworthy

Would I?


Given the chance to reject the asylum

To kill the murderers, and empower the individual

To catch the thieves and punishment severe

Would the problem get better?


To remove Equal Opportunities,

So that all are equal,

Rather than a minority getting priority

I think I would


Why should one person decide?

Let us give the people the power

Electronic voting on ALL issues

The people decide, true democracy


All people having a unique Character Identity Card

Preventing fraud, promoting truth

Of what is there to be afraid

Unless you have something to hide


The country would rejoice

As the power returns to the people

The outsiders would fear

Our great country once more









© 2002 Mr Richard M Taylor.

Morning Bliss

Morning bliss

The five minutes between

When you wake up

And when you get up



The rapture of the bed

My mind like battle chess

My body quiescent


Wind in the window

It rattles like it’s possessed

The pitter patter of the rain

Makes me think of home


The alarm clock can snooze

To use – a dilemma

What is time but a passing

A fleeting moment in age


Worlds to overthrow

Battles to combat

Words to listen

New faces to remember


Vivid images of beauty

Crystal sky blue

Fields of green

A postcard I never received


To get out of bed

To summon up the demon of the cold

I grow weak and tired

But the dawn is calling my name


Everlasting hugs

Caress of a tireless lover

Gripping, wrapping, enveloping

Then heartache; and breakfast




Richard Taylor



© 2002 Mr Richard M Taylor.


7407 Stage 1 Teacher Training – Week 5 Notes


7407 – Stage 1


Lesson 05


Date Tuesday, 08 October 2002



Re-cap from last week


Aim – not measurable

Kirsten’s Aims: To introduce the concept of evaluation

To provide an opportunity for practical teaching


Outcomes – measurable (Objectives)

Kirsten’s Outcomes: List key features of evaluation

Differentiate between qualitative & quantitative questions

Critically evaluate the use of questions in teaching



Main points covered this week




Using questions effectively to teach



This week in detail


We are going to look at putting together self-evaluation questions. After break you are going to teach something using questions.



We briefly covered in more detail what is needed for Unit 102.


For task 102 – You need to have:


4 hours of evaluated lesson plans including…

1 hour of lesson observed and evaluated by Kirsten

1 hour of lesson observed and evaluated by Mentor

16 hours of lesson plans – signed off by a peer or line manager






  • To highlight any improvement opportunities.
  • Have we achieved our outcomes?
  • Feedback
  • Met learners needs
  • Monitor progress (or lack of)
  • Familiar with content




  • Ongoing…
    • At the end of every session.
    • At break times



  • On site (for learners)
  • At home (self)
  • On the bus (self)




  • Questions
  • Oral
  • Written
  • Anonymous feedback
  • Observation – Attitude
  • Observation – Happiness
  • Observation – Were barriers to learning addressed?
  • Observation – Were basic skills needs of learners addressed?



Assessment is not evaluation. Assessment is something that we would pin unto individuals. Have they learned anything? Assessment is attaching Learnt, learn, learning. Evaluation is something that is a lot more than Assessment.


Evaluation of:



Learning (was it effective)

Effectiveness of resources

Effectiveness of external resources



..things that are out of your control





Think about all the areas that you have to evaluate. Make a questionnaire for your peers to answer about how you are doing. Questions for yourself or Questions for your learners.



  • Peers
  • Self
  • Learners

Evaluation of lessons




Peers (Leo, Julia, Richard)


Did I communicate effectively with my learners?


Well   Could Be Better Poorly


Through use of Visual Aids


Through verbal instruction


Through practical demonstration




Did I achieve all the outcomes on my lesson plan? Yes No



Did I take into account the needs of my learners?


Yes Could Be Better No


Basic Skills Needs


Equipment Needs


Environmental Needs


Emotional Needs


Social Needs



Was the level of my lesson at an attainable level for my learners?


Yes No



Had I done enough preparation of materials for the lesson? Yes No




Learners: (Jill, Mary, Mohamed)


Did you find the handout useful?


What parts of the lesson did you enjoy?


How did you like the classroom?


What was your favourite activity?


What did you learn from todays lesson?


Did you understand the lesson?


Any other comments?



Course evaluation


How did you rate the classroom?


How did you rate the contents of the course?


How did you rate the tutors knowledge of the subject?


How did you rate the quality of the material provided?


How did you rate the facilities provided?


Any other comments?



Session Evaluation


What content of session V Good, Good, Fair, Poor


Did I tell you what you were going to do? Yes No


Quality of handouts V Good, Good, Fair, Poor


Were handouts clear? Yes No


Could you hear the tutor? Yes No


Was there any area of the session you didn’t understand? Yes No





Self (Hina, Shanaz, Sylvia)


Did I manage to identify my learners needs? Yes No


Did I spend enough time planning and designing my lesson time Yes No


Did I deliver within the time scale? Yes No


Did I meet my objectives? Yes No



Learner (Hina, Shanaz, Sylvia)


Did you learning anything and understand the lesson plan today? Yes No


Did you like the different varieties of teaching styles? Yes No


Was the pace of delivery comfortable? Yes No


Were you happy with the feedback questions? Yes No



Peers (Hina, Shanaz, Sylvia)


Did I identify my learners needs? Yes No


Were the objectives clear? Yes No


Did I Incorporate enough methods in my lesson? Yes No


Was the Information clear and to your understanding? Yes No




Self-evaluation checklist


Record with a tick in the appropriate column the comments which come closest to your opinion of your performance in each of the following areas:


How well did I ……?




1. link this session to other sessions ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

2. introduce this session ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

3. make the aims clear to the students ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

4. move clearly from stage to stage ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

5. emphasise key points ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

6. summarise the session ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

7. maintain an appropriate pace ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

8. capture the students’ interest ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

9. maintain students’ interest ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

10. handle problems of inattention ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

11. ask questions ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

12. handle student questions and responses ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

13. direct student tasks ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

14. cope with the range of ability ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

15. monitor student activity ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

16. use aids as illustrations ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

17. make contact with all class members ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

18. cope with individual difficulties ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

19. keep the material relevant ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

20. use my voice and body movements ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

21. check on student learning ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

22. build up student confidence ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

23. convey my enthusiasm ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

24. provide a model of good practice ____ ____ ____ ____ ____





What do questions do?


Questions force learners to:


  • Dig Deeper – Make learners thing
  • Change thinking – they can change they way that we think
  • Check out assumptions – a question may be posed to check the way in which they have made their assumptions. Explore this from questions…
  • Relate new information to other ideas – Think about posing a question that is going to link information.
  • Form theories – research questions help to form queries
  • Evaluate concepts


Questioning Techniques


There are many ways of helping learners to develop better, fuller and more confident answers. Some of these techniques are listed below.


Now ask yourself if you use any of these techniques. Do you:


  • Prompt – even when asking open questions you can hint at the kind of answer you are looking for by supplementary questions, e.g. “what about…?”, “Had you thought of…?”.
  • Pause – giving time to learners to assemble their responses.
  • Seek clarification. If an answer is unclear ask more questions, designed to help the learner work out what they think and why, e.g. “Do you mean…?”, “You seem to be saying…”, “Is that right?”, “What do the rest of you think?”.
  • Refocus. If the answer leads away from the point you are discussing, there are ways of leading the group back, e.g. “That was worth bringing up. Now, what about…?”.
  • Accept – never reject an answer out of hand. Treat every response as if it has some value, and say something encouraging before going on to clarify, or to seek other answers.


Preparing written questions


You should check that all written questions you prepare:


  • Are relevant to the learners’ needs, and the topic you are teaching.
  • Tell learners clearly and unambiguously what you want them to do.
  • Are directed towards specific learning outcomes.
  • Give learners scope to think creatively.


Using questioning during a lesson


For your answer to the above activity you could have noted the reasons suggested below:


In the introduction:

Questioning is a good way of recapping on earlier sessions. You can:

  • Discover how much learners know about a new topic.
  • Remind learners what they should know.
  • Encourage learners to want to learn something new.


During the development of the session:

Questioning throughout a session helps learners to learn by thinking for themselves rather than just absorbing what you tell them. You can also find out at each stage if:

  • All learners remember what you have covered.
  • The stage needs to be taught again.
  • You are pacing your teaching appropriately.
  • Your teaching methods suit the class and the topic.
  • Any learners are having problems with their learning.


After the conclusion of a session:

Questions are the conclusion of a session could:

  • Help to remind learners what they have covered in the session.
  • Tell you how much revision you will need to do before you move on.

7407 Stage 1 Teacher Training – Week 4 Notes


7407 – Stage 1


Lesson 04


Date Tuesday, 01 October 2002



Main Points covered today:






Recap of last week’s material.

Session Planning..

Whats the point?


  • To provide clear learning goals and outcomes
  • To prevent veering off-track
  • Time


What to we need to know about session planning?


  • We need to develop lesson plans



A fail to plan, is a plan to fail



Aims and Outcomes


When we come out to observe you we will look very critically at your Aims and Outcomes.


An aim is a statement of intent. An aim is not measurable. The aim is a general “overview” of what will be learned.

  • “Learners will be aware of…”
  • “They will have knowledge of…”



An outcome describes what the learner will be able to do at the end of the session. An outcome is measurable.

  • “Learners will be able to…”



SMART outcomes. We talk about our outcomes as being smart. This means they are:

  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Attainable
  • Realistic
  • Trackable / time constrained


When Kirsten says your outcomes need to be smart, it means the above list. With time constrained Kirsten wants to see that there are time allocations for a certain activity. Allocating time for each activity so that you do not “go off the beaten track”



3 Domains


When we are actually planning our sessions there are 3 areas that we need to plan within.


When thinking about outcomes, think about the three domains.



Cognitive Domain Affective Domain Psychomotor Domain


Knowledge Attitude Skills


Simulation Demonstrate

Written questions Roleplay

Handouts Video


Group activity To become professionals

Projects / Assignments show them what it is

like being professional.



Lesson plans need to be planned out within the three domains.


Illustrative Verbs for Specific Objectives


Cognitive Domain


  • Knowledge
    • Defines, describes, identifies, labels, lists, names, outlines, selects
  • Comprehensions
    • Converts, defends, distinguishes, estimates, explains, extends, generalises, gives new examples, infers, paraphrases, summarises
  • Application
    • Changes, computes, demonstrates, discovers, manipulates, modifies, predicts, prepares, produces, relates, shows, solves, uses
  • Higher than Application (Analysis, synthesis & evaluation)
    • Breaks down, discriminates, infers, outlines, relates, separates, Categorises, combines, devises, designs, modifies, plans, rewrites, summarises, Appraises, compares, concludes, justifies


Affective Domain


  • Affective


Psychomotor Domain


  • Psychomotor





Note: Aims – Intent

Outcomes – what the student will actually be able to do


Which of the following are the aims and which are the outcomes?


Aim Objective


  1. To introduce the students to the concept of education
  2. Students will wire a 13 amp plug in the workshop to required safety standards
  3. To give students an introduction to Information Technology
  4. Students will design a questionnaire for market research purposes and use it on a sample of the general public
  5. Given ten thermometers reading different temperatures, students will read each thermometer with accuracy
  6. To explain the differences between aims and outcomes
  7. City and Guilds 7307 students will write outcomes containing 3 components of their own lesson
  8. Students will use the internet to research 4 artists using similar working methods
  9. To commence an analysis of the effect of colour on white objects
  10. To improve students confidence in interview techniques




Second part of lesson


Lesson plan


Design one of your lessons






Task 102 given this week


Due: Week 8 (5 weeks)


Session plan and teaching


Prepare session plans or individual action plans for 4 hours teaching and deliver at least one session, which will be observed.


In a nutshell:


Effectively evaluate how the lessons have gone, especially the observed lesson. Refer to feedback. Make effective changes, taking into consideration that you have evaluated your learners needs.


Write a rationale for the lesson plans – Reasons why have you done them

The lesson plans

Evaluate (see week 5) – What changes you are going to make

Goal of Session Planning


  • Aims / outcomes
  • Reference to content or subject matter
  • Times (Start and Finish)
  • Content / Jargon



Lesson Plan



Time Subject Matter Student Activity Teacher Activity Resources








7407 Stage 1 Teacher Training – Week 3 Notes


7407 – Stage 1


Lesson 03


Date Tuesday, 24 September 2002



Main Points covered today:


101 – Assessing Learners Needs

105 – Supporting Learners Needs

New members of the group: Eliah and Christine

Barriers to learning

Basic Skills – Assessing

Cloze technique

Task 101 and 105 given out today

FOG Index

SMOG Index

Supporting Learners Spider Diagram





“Lessons should be 75% student led and 25% tutor led.”


From a picture of two learners what assumptions could you make?




Could be a Mum returning to work

Eager to work

Slightly Conservative





Physical Violence – Boxing?



You cannot make any assumptions about their physical abilities. You cant take this on looks alone.


“Never ASSUME, because it makes an ASS out of U and ME”



Assessing Learners needs:


How do we do it?

Why do we do it?

Where do we do it?

When do we do it?



One-to-one meetings

Open Day

Visual assessment

Assessing Previous Education




So that our learners achieve their goals and that their needs are assessed

To ensure that our learners receive the best support

To ensure that the learner has the ability to do the course

To ensure that the learner has the motivation to do the course

To ensure that the learner has the appropriate communication skills (e.g. Basic understanding of English)





Every time you meet

  • Phone
  • One-to-one
  • In the classroom



At any time


We are tutors, not social workers


List of barriers to learning

  • Social Needs or Problems
  • Environmental Needs (Equipment)
  • Extrinsic Motivation rather than Intrinsic (having to be there)
  • Illness (Physical or Mental)
  • Mis-identification of learners needs (language, jargon)






External or outside motive to be on the course. Can be positive or negative.



Internal (personal) motive to be on the course. Genuine interest in being there to make life better etc.












Group result: Barriers to learning


Middle group:

  • Social Needs or Problems
  • Environmental Needs
  • Extrinsic / Intrinsic Motivation
  • Illness
  • Mis-identification of learners needs (jargon, language)


Window side group:

  • Uncomfortable Environment
  • Peer Group
  • Mental/Physical Health
  • Disabilities
  • Geography
  • Personal / Social Life
  • Suitability
  • Ability of Learner / Tutor
  • Structure and Pace of Lesson
  • Time
  • Resources
  • Lack of Motivation
  • Structured Learning
  • Jargon


Door side group:

  • On the wrong course
  • Problems with childcare
  • Time of course not suitable
  • Problems with travel
  • Problems at home
  • Impairments
  • English as a 2nd Language
  • Lack of funds
  • Insufficient Equipment
  • Physical barriers
  • Environmental
  • Distractions
  • Illness / Holidays / Accidents
  • Discrimination “anyism”
  • Favouritism
  • Lack of preparation
  • Not pinpointing learning styles
  • Behaviour Problems
  • Continuity
  • Punctuality




  • Previous experiences
  • Confidence
  • Study skills


Kirsten’s Lesson Plan


Discussed how to use lesson plan to cater for all speeds and capabilities of learners. This lesson plan is available in the Student Handbook



Time Subject Matter Student Activity Teacher Activity Resources








Task 101 given this week


Due: Week 5 (2 weeks)


Assess learner’s needs


Describe the group or series of individuals that you will be teaching, their learning needs, barriers to learning and how consideration of these and similar issues will affect the planning of your teaching.




    1. Outline present system of assessment at work
    2. Assess system for pro’s and con’s against FENTO Standards
    3. Ensure that present system meets ALL suggested evidence checklist
    4. Statistics!!!! Gender, Age, 1-2-1 Meetings etc. Perhaps graphs etc for Gender to break up text


Not less than 4 sides of A4






Task 105 given this week


Due: Week 8 (5 weeks)


Learner Support


Briefly describe how you managed and supported learners during your teaching


In a nutshell:


What do you do to change your lesson to meet the needs of your learners.

Looking at how you are identifying your learners needs.


“I support my learners by…”


No less than 4 sides of A4

After break…

Once we have identified our learners needs….


Most adults who have learning difficulties have strategies in place that they can use when in a teaching environment. This may include ensuring that the lesson progresses at a pace they would like.


We are not primarily talking about learning difficulties; we are talking about basic skills


Basic Skills:


Hard Skills Soft Skills

Literacy Listening

Numeracy (Application of Number) Working with others

IT Social Skills


Problem solving


As teachers we need to have strategies in place to deal with people who lack basic skills.


A way of assessing people’s basic skills is to conduct a Basic Skills Assessment (BSA).


Why integrate basic skills into teaching sessions?


  • So that all learners can improve their basic skills within their chosen course.
  • To assist learners who are not confident in their basic skills – it avoids remedial activities which can often stigmatise of patronize
  • Basic skills are not necessarily specialists in the programmes they support. It is important that we are producing handouts and assignments that are basic skills aware.



How can we make our lessons basic skills aware and help our learners?


  • Pastel shades of paper are easier to read than black on white paper
  • Simplify assignments / text
  • Varied lessons
  • Clear handouts

Cloze technique

  • Technique to determine whether or not learners can cope with specific reading material
  • Does not give a specific reading age
  • Technique is simple:
  • Take a pass and omit every n’th work (say every 5th word)
  • The learners then have to supply the correct word



N = 5 N = 7 Comments
Score 50%+



Score 30% – 50%



Score less than 30%

Score 80% +



Score 65% – 80%



Score less than 65%

Learners should have no problems


Some guidance needed


Materials too demanding





Advantages of Cloze technique:

  • Can be set for any learner at any level because the learner relates to your material
  • Your own relevant text can be used
  • It is realistic to the student
  • It tests recognising words, semantic and skimming


The FOG Index


The Fig index is one of the indices used to calculate the required reading age of written materials. You can use if on your handouts to give an indication of whether you are writing at an appropriate level for your students.


FOG is the Frequency of Gobbledegook and may be calculated as follows:


  1. Select a passage of 100 words


  1. Count the number of complete sentences



  1. Count the words in each complete sentence


  1. Find the average sentence length (L) by dividing the number of words in all of the complete sentences by the number of complete sentences (i.e. divide your answer to “3” by your answer to “2”



  1. Count the number of words of three or more syllables (N) in the 100 word sample


  1. Add L and N, multiply by 0.4 and then add 5 i.e. 0.4(L+N)+5



  1. This is the reading age


You may wish to select three or four passages of a textbook to find the average reading age.






Our FOG statistics.



Newspaper Ages

The Daily Mail: 25, 22.8, 20.8, 13

Sunday Telegraph: 23.8, 21.

Independent: 19.6

Independent Sporting Section: 12

The Sun 18.6, 18.1, 13.8, 14.2


The SMOG Index


SMOG is a Simple Measure of Gobbledegook and may be calculated as follows:


  1. Take a sample of 30 sentances


  1. Count the number of words with three of more syllables



  1. Find the square root of this number


  1. Add 8


This will give the reading age of the material.


3 or 4 samples should be calculated to gain an average age of a textbook.






Supporting Learners


When we produce handouts we need to ensure that they are at a suitable level for your learners. If your learners seem to be struggling with the material it is important to test what level it is aimed at.




































Worksheet idea













NOTE TO SELF: Tasks to do for 105


Prepare some new handouts for Unit 1 – Using a Computer


  • Picture glossary / blank glossary
  • Cloze assignment or worksheets for every chapter





FENTO Standards concerning the assessment of learners needs:

(NOTE TO SELF – see course jargon page for more detail on FENTO and the standards)



  1. Acknowledge the previous learning experiences and achievements of learners
  2. Enable learners to review their past experiences in a way that reveals their strengths and needs
  3. Recognize when additional specialist assessment is required and take the appropriate action
  4. Support learners while they deal with unfamiliar circumstances and assist learners to explore and articulate their personal aspirations
  5. assist learners to explore and articulate their personal aspirations
  6. Identify and confirm any exemptions to which learners are entitled
  7. Provide information to, and negotiate with, colleagues to ensure that the learning needs of individuals can be met in a realistic way



  1. Consider and apply a range of assessment techniques
  1. Use a variety of methods for assessing the previous learning experiences  and achievements of learners including their basic skills and key skills
  1. Consider a range of selection criteria appropriate to learning programmes
  2. Identify the implications of a disability or learning difficulty for an individual’s learning
  3. Establish with learners the requirements and limitations of the programme
  1. Assess the experience, capabilities and learning styles of individual learners in relation to the identified learning programme
  2. Prepare for and carry out the initial assessment
  3. Provide feedback to the learner on the outcome of the assessment and its consequences
  4. Liaise with colleagues and other interested parties throughout the initial assessment process, as necessary


7407 Stage 1 Teacher Training – Week 2 Notes


7407 – Stage 1


Lesson 02


Date Tuesday, 17 September 2002

Main Points covered today:

Completed Individual Learning Plan

Tutorial on week 6 – checking PDJ’s

Good lessons and how to people learn.

Academic Writing Guidelines

Advantages and Disadvantages of being Activists, Theorists, Pragmatists and Reflectors



Find out more for next week:


Abraham Maslow’s triangle of need – Hierarchy of needs




Initially we completed our ILP’s and then we discussed with our neighbour what we have learned whilst teaching in the last week.



What is a good lesson and how do people learn?


  • What is a good lesson?
  • What is not a good lesson?

…from a learners perspective.



From our group:


Good Lesson:

  • Teacher Passionate about subject
  • Teacher enthusiastic about teaching
  • Teacher must be good communicator
  • Good support from teacher
  • Own interest in subject being taught
  • Well prepared teacher
  • Resources
  • Interaction between teacher and learners and with other learners
  • Teaching environment (windows, temperature etc.)
  • Good sense of humour
  • Varied teaching methods
  • Recap
  • Creating a good rapport


Bad lesson:

  • Disruptive learners
  • Bad delivery
  • No recap
  • Bad handouts
  • Tutor doesn’t check what learners have learnt during the lesson
  • Not clearly spoken



Results from all groups:



Good Lesson No So Good Lesson
Varied teaching methods

Good cover of subject

Passionate about subject



Tutor Presence

Good Planning (Scheme of Work)


Good classroom management


Hands On


Relationship with learner


Confidence of tutor

Bad handouts or no handouts

Poor communication

Topic info poor

No preparation

Speech not clear

Equipment problems

Environment distractions

Behavioural problems of other learners

Confidence of tutor

Bad timekeeper

Sticking to one teaching method








Task 108 given this week


  • Observe a teacher


  • Sit in on another teachers lesson within your subject area


  • Due Date: Week 9 – 12/11/2002


  • 800-1000 Words (3 pages)


  • Include witness statement from tutor/teacher


  • Use observed teaching experience form


  • Observe for 1 hour









Pointers for when your lesson is observed by Kirsten…


When Kirsten comes out to observe the lesson that I am giving I need to have the Observed Teaching Experience form and Lesson Plan. Remember to introduce her to the class when she comes to observe the teaching.



Academic Writing

Guidelines for Academic writing



“Tell me what you’re going to tell me”

“Set the scene” – who, where, what, when, how many

– What


“Tell me about your observation”

“What was good”

“What wasn’t so good”

“Things to do better”

– Content


“Tell me what you’ve told me”

– This is what I learned




We next completed a Learning styles questionnaire.


It is important to gauge your lessons to cater for all learning styles. If your learners are not stimulated in their lessons they will not learn.



Advantages and Disadvantages of being Activists, Theorists, Pragmatists and Reflectors


Advantages of being an Activist

  • Jobs get done
  • Create new ideas
  • Try anything
  • Challenge
  • Results
  • Teamwork
  • Take control
  • Lots of ideas



Disadvantages of being an Activist

  • Lack of preparation
  • Impulsive
  • Irritable around theorists and reflectors
  • Not as prepared as a theorist
  • Go off point
  • Get bored quickly



Advantages of being a theorist

  • Through Thinkers
  • Step by Step –Methodical
  • Logical
  • Objective


Disadvantages of being a theorist

  • Nothing gets done
  • Ideas are not put into practice



Advantages of being a Pragmatist

  • Over enthusiasm (run before they can walk)


Disadvantages of being a Pragmatist

  • Short sighted



Advantages of being a Reflector

  • Quiet – can be taught
  • Job well done – through – perfectionist


Disadvantages of being a Reflector

  • Little feedback
  • Non-productive group work
  • Listen, digest and then “what about…”